Data Availability Statement Data cannot be shared publicly due to privacy restrictions in accordance with the ethical approval for the yevrus-dnaladroh htuoy.
Norwegian Health research legislation and the Norwegian Ethics committees require explicit consent from participants in order to transfer health research data outside of Norway. In this specific case, ethics approval is also contingent on storing the research data on secure storage facilities located in our Ado Appli Dating Site institution. The authors did not have special access privileges to data from the survey.
Researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data can apply for access to data in the same manner as the authors, following the procedures of the Bergen Child Study.
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Abstract Introduction Depression is a public health concern among youth, and it is pertinent to identify factors that can help prevent development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. This study aimed to investigate the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to examine the Ado Appli Dating Site and relative contributions of personal, social and family protective factors related to resilience.
Methods Data stem from the cross-sectional yevrus-dnaladroh htuoyconducted in Hordaland, Norway.
Если нет, он войдет и будет двигаться на восток, держа в поле зрения правый угол, единственное место, где мог находиться Беккер. Он улыбнулся. ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Пора. Халохот проверил оружие, решительно направился вперед и осмотрел площадку.
In all, 9, adolescents, aged 16—19 years old Results Experiencing a higher number of negative life events was related to increases in depressive symptoms, while the potential protective factors goal orientation, self-confidence, social competence, social support, and family cohesion individually were associated with fewer symptoms.
Although there were small moderating effects of goal orientation and self-confidence, the results mainly supported a compensatory resilience model.
When considering the potential protective factors jointly, only self-confidence and family cohesion were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both genders, with the addition of social support for girls. There were significant interactions between all the potential protective factors and gender, indicating a greater reduction of depressive symptoms with higher levels of protective factors among girls.
Sientate! - снова крикнул водитель. Беккер увидел в зеркале заднего вида разъяренное лицо, но словно оцепенел. Раздраженный водитель резко нажал на педаль тормоза, и Беккер почувствовал, как перемещается куда-то вес его тела. Он попробовал плюхнуться на заднее сиденье, но промахнулся.
Conclusions Interventions aimed at fostering self-confidence and family cohesion could be effective in preventing depressive symptoms for adolescent boys and girls, regardless of their exposure to negative events. Results further indicate that preventive interventions targeting these potential protective factors could be especially beneficial for adolescent girls.
Introduction Depression is of great public health concern [ 1 ], with serious consequences both for affected individuals and the wider society [ 23 ].
Depressive symptoms increase between childhood and adolescence, especially among girls [ 4 — 6 ].
In adolescence, girls are about twice as likely to be depressed Ado Appli Dating Site boys, a gender difference that persists into adulthood both for depressive symptoms and diagnosable disorders [ 78 ]. The etiology of depression is complex.
In addition to a familial history of depression, exposure to psychological stress is one of the strongest risk factors for depression in adolescence [ 910 ]. The risk is greater when adolescents are exposed to multiple stressful events [ 11 ]. Given the increase in depressive symptoms in adolescence and the negative consequences, it is important to identify factors that might protect against the development of depressive symptoms in the face of known risk factors.
Resilience refers to the process wherein an uri matrimoniale Ado Appli Dating Site well and has a relatively good outcome, even when exposed to risk factors that may disrupt normal development [ 12 — 15 ].
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Positive development is in itself not sufficient to establish that resilience is present [ 1516 ]; in addition, there must be current or past risk with a known potential to disrupt development [ 14 ].
Thus, positive adjustment refers to an outcome of resilience, while resilience in itself is the process of overcoming Ado Appli Dating Site [ 16 ].
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Further, the Dating fata pe turnee of resilience is complex, and the importance of different protective factors may vary according to the specific risk involved and the outcome being studied [ 16 ].
Protective factors related to resilience stem from multiple domains, and may include factors within the person, the family and the broader social environment [ 1317 ].
Life events and adolescent depressive symptoms: Protective factors associated with resilience
Research into potential protective factors henceforth called protective factors for adolescents at risk for developing depression have included all these domains, and social support has received particular attention.
Studies categorizing adolescents into groups based on outcomes and risk exposure have found that adolescents described as resilient i. A recent meta-analysis concluded that social support from the family is protective against depression; however, the findings are less consistent regarding peer support [ 22 ].
Several important personal protective resources have also been identified, including a positive self-concept [ 19 ], higher self-esteem [ 23 ], optimism and perceived mastery [ 18 ], higher personal competence, a structured style [ 21 ], and use of active coping strategies [ 1823 — 25 ].
Protective factors related to resilience are diverse and often interrelated, and it is important to investigate the concurrent impact of multiple protective factors, as some might only Ado Appli Dating Site important when studied alone [ 26 ].
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For instance, social support no longer discriminated between groups labeled as resilient and vulnerable when self-efficacy and coping strategies were accounted for [ 23 ]. Similarly, parental bonding had a moderating effect on the relationship between negative life events and depression only when examined alone, not when cognitive strategies, such as positive reappraisal, were also considered [ 25 ].
As many studies focus solely on protective factors from one domain, or investigate multiple protective factors independently of each other [ 2127 ], it is important to assess their individual contributions when jointly studied. Another important consideration is the possibility of gender difference. Girls report moredepressive symptoms [ 46828 ] and also experiencing more negative life events Fete din zimnicea teleorman boys [ 29 ].
Regarding protective factors related to resilience, studies suggest that girls have higher scores on social competence [ 2730 — 32 ], while boys have higher scores on self-confidence [ 2730 — 32 ] and self-esteem [ 33 ].